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What is DIABETES MELLITUS by Luamart Lewis

By at June 21, 2013 | 10:02 am | Print

Fact: Did you know that at least 26 million Americans today have diabetes?  Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic condition that a lot of people are not very familiar with.  Diabetes Mellitus can be categorized as Type 1, Type 2, Diabetes insipidus and Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).  Today I would like to slightly inform you about Diabetes Mellitus.  Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the pancreas.  It causes a person’s blood sugar levels to become abnormal. High glucose levels in the blood also known as hyperglycemia.  Diabetes is when the sugar in the bloodstream cannot enter the red blood cells. The insulin secreted from the pancreas works as a key to allow the sugar to enter the cell. The body utilizes the sugar for energy commonly known as ATP. In some cases of diabetes the pancreas secretes insulin that is not sufficient enough to keep glucose levels in the body at homeostasis (normal) range. Sometimes the pancreas doesn’t secrete insulin at all.  Normal ranges of glucose in the blood are 60-100 when a person is fasting. This can be determined by usage of a blood glucose monitor also known as a glucometer.

Type 1 diabetes is commonly known as insulin dependent.  In Type 1 diabetes, the person depends on synthetic insulin to bring the blood sugar levels within therapeutic range.  High blood sugar is also known as hyperglycemia.  Hyperglycemia usually occurs when blood glucose rises above 165 mg/dl.  Blood glucose levels can rise to dangerous level causing certain side effects such as diaphoresis, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma, and excessive thirst.  Blood glucose can easily be controlled by diet; Such as eating various kinds of healthy foods that include simple and complex carbohydrates.  Maintaining a therapeutic blood glucose level can be easily ascertained by following a strict diet. Diet compliance is essential to staying healthy and to keep systemic problems from occurring to live a healthier life.

Hypoglycemia usually occurs when blood glucose levels decrease below 60 mg/dl.  Rebound hypoglycemia is a common side effect of insulin usage.  Side effects are confusion, dizziness, anxiety, pale skin, irritability and hunger.  Severe symptoms of hypoglycemia would include headache, numbness in mouth and tongue, fainting and diabetic coma.  Hypoglycemia can be treated with simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. To raise blood glucose levels to normal range quickly a simple carbs can be administered such as a piece of candy, a glass of orange juice, or a glucagon injection (instant glucose).  To keep blood glucose levels at a normal range a complex carb should be given such as a sandwich or a cup of milk.

Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetics produce insulin that is insufficient or inadequate, also known as resistive.  Type 2 diabetics have various complications such as damage to the eyes, kidneys and heart, dehydration, and frequent urination leading to hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma.  Type 2 diabetes is managed by exercise blood sugar monitoring diet, and medications such as oral hypoglycemic and insulin usage.  Type 2 diabetes is chronic and requires life-long treatment.

Diabetes Mellitus is a serious condition that effect’s many Americans. Educating people about the disease process can result in healthier and prolonging life.

 

Reference:

www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-2-diabetes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus#Management

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/high_blood_sugar_hyperglycemia/article_em.htm

 

 

 

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  1. […] referred to as the “slow killer,” diabetes has been affecting peoples’ lives for so many years. About 30 million people in the United States […]

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