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In the past, we have included numerous articles written by future healthcare providers. The students who wrote these articles were taking prerequisite classes such as anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and basic health and disease courses. These courses are required for entrance into most school programs relating to healthcare and medical fields. The papers were written on a basic level in order to help educate the Nashville community and anyone else who is interested in learning about a particular topic relating to disease or health. We have continued that on this page “Blog Articles“. We will now be placing all new articles/papers written on this page by placing a link where you can easily access the entire article. This page will be updated regularly as we receive contributions. We hope you find the information useful, and if you do please pass it on to a friend or family member who might also benefit from the information. Happy Reading!


Pseudomonas aeruginosa Report | Microbiology Unknown Lab

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that can cause an infection in almost any part of the human body. The most serious infections caused by P. aeruginosa are often nosocomial, or in those with compromised immune systems. (1) However, those with healthy immune systems can also develop an illness from the bacterium. The bacterium can be spread in hospitals from such a thing as simple as healthcare workers not washing their hands, or from a piece of equipment that was not properly cleaned. The origin of the pathogen is widespread inhabiting soil, water, plants, animals, and humans (2). P. aeruginosa is the most common pathogen isolated from patients who have been hospitalized for longer than one week. The bacterium acts as an opportunistic pathogen and therefore rarely causes disease in healthy people. The bacterium also has minimal nutritional requirements and can tolerate a wide variety of physical conditions, adding to its pathogenicity (2).  The bacterium can cause a wide variety of diseases including endocarditis, respiratory infections, septicemia, central nervous system infection, ear and eye infections, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections (3). P. aeruginosa affects nearly every system in one’s body, which is why it is so incredibly dangerous, especially present in hospitals.


Unknown Microbiology Report Sample

The results of the Gram positive bacterium after all biochemical tests were performed was identified as Enterococcus faecalis. A Gram stain discovered that the bacteria were cocci shaped which narrowed the results down to three different bacteria.  The first biochemical test performed was a negative Urea test which left two bacteria. The last test was a negative Catalase test that led to the only Gram negative bacteria left which was E. faecalis.  A Nitrate test was performed to confirm the result of E. faecalis. This result was confirmed by Lab instructor.  There were no problems encountered with finding this conclusion.


Discussion of S. Epidermidis and E. Aerogenes | Micro Unknown Lab Report

Staphlycoccus epidermidis was discovered in 1884 by Friedrich Julius Rosenbach by noticing a difference between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. (2) This bacteria is part of the human’s normal skin flora and is naturally found on the body. The appearance of Staphylococcus aureus is round grape-like structures. This bacteria can grow by aerobic respiration or by fermentation because it is a facultative aerobe. The most virulence of this bacteria is seen in the fact that it has the ability to form biofilms among plastic surfaces which most often causes problems in catheters or other plastic surfaces (2). The reason this causes such high virulence is because typically antibiotics are not as effective in treating bacteria with biofilms. Staphylococcus epidermidis is most often treated with Vancomycin. However, this bacteria is typically non-pathogenic (3). It is harmless to healthy people but it is an opportunistic bacteria and will cause problems in individuals with compromised immune systems. Some of these people may be newborns, the elderly, intravenous drug users, and catheter users (3). This disease may cause other diseases to occur such as endocarditis. The types of symptoms that may occur when an infection with this bacteria is present are fever, fatigue, pain, or tenderness at the site of an implant. Rapid breathing, rapid heartbeat, and sweating are usually signs of any typical infection (3). The faster this bacterial infection is detected, the better, because it cuts down the time of the bacteria’s ability to form biofilms and be successfully treated.


What are Panic Attacks and Anxiety Disorders by Melissa Ziegler

Panic disorder is similar trigger wise with anxiety disorder. The difference is having no indication of a panic attack occurring. Anyone could have one to two panic attacks in their lifetime, even during sleep. However having multiple, recurrent attacks is a clear sign of having a panic disorder. Having a sudden feeling of terror without any previous warning is an indicator of a panic attack; much like having intense fear is associated with having an anxiety attack. It’s easy to confuse the two but panic attacks leave different symptoms behind such as sweating, chills, hot flashes, headache, dizziness, trouble swallowing and/ or tightness of the throat, chest pain, hyperventilation, trembling, sense of impending doom, nausea, and faintness. The attacks usually last no longer than 10 minutes, unlike anxiety attacks which could last minutes less. Panic attacks or disorders could lead someone to avoid any triggering situations altogether. It could include any environment like a classroom or simply socializing with strangers. It could lead to the person not wanting to leave their home or any safe place.


Example of a Microbiology Unknown Lab Paper | Unknown Bacteria Lab

Background Information on Bacillus subtilis: Bacillus subtilis is a very well-studied microbe. It is considered the “type” species of the Bacillus genus (2). B. subtilis, of the Family Bacillaceae, was named in 1872 by Ferdinand Cohn (3). This bacterium is also known by the names hay bacillus or grass bacillus (1). Like other bacteria in the Bacillaceae family, B. subtilis can grow in the presence of oxygen (with the help of its catalase enzyme) and is endospore-forming (1). It is predicted that it spends most of its time inactive and in spore form. B. subtilis is commonly recovered from soil, water, air, and decomposing plant material (1). Different strains of B. subtilis can be used as biological control agents under different situations. One of the B. subtilis strains produces a chemical called iturin (1). This chemical acts as a growth inhibitor for many other bacteria and some fungi, which allows B. subtilis to out-compete several other soil-living microorganisms (1).  Because of this strain’s inhibitory effect on many other bacteria, it is sometimes added to fertilizer to help delicate plants to grow (1).

What is Chronic Kidney Disease by Jenna Schneider

Chronic kidney disease has certain risks, with any type of disease there are risks. People who have high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, family history, and age all play a factor in the risk. This disease can affect anyone, but in particular, people who are already prone to problems. However, there are no symptoms for this particular disease until it has progressed too far along. To help prevent this type of disease from happening, people should be aware of the salt in their diet, exercise regularly, limit or avoid tobacco and alcohol, and maintain regular physical exams by a doctor. People who are concerned about this disease can get tested by their doctor. There are several tests performed to check the kidneys. The two main types of tests are a simple urine test and an estimated glomerular filtration rate otherwise known as an eGFR test. The test called estimated glomerular filtration rate measures how well your kidneys filter blood. They look for one type of waste called creatinine. A healthy kidney will filter this waste product out of your system. 


What is Plaque Psoriasis by Katie Walkenhorst

There are triggers for psoriasis.  Some triggers can be avoided and others are more difficult.  Because psoriasis is part of the immune system, sickness is a strong trigger.  A common sickness such as strep throat can cause psoriasis to spread. Injuries to the skin such as cuts, scrapes, and even a bug bite can cause psoriasis to spread or develop. Causing heavy impact damage to your body such as hitting your head will also have an effect. Stress has been proven to be one of the top killers of your immune system so it would stand to reason that it would also be one of the top spreaders of psoriasis.  Many people will develop a rash that cannot be cleared up with any over-the-counter remedy and seek out a doctor’s diagnosis.


What are Peptic Ulcers by Monika Staniek

So then the big question is what are peptic ulcers? Peptic ulcers are really painful sores or holes that form in the stomach or your duodenum, which is the upper part of your small intestine.  Doctors had found that it is a result of a disproportion between digestive fluids and duodenum. Some of the things that can contribute to getting this disease are a bacterial infection from H. pylori in the stomach, use of painkillers, drinking, and smoking, and excess acid production. When you have ulcer disease, symptoms vary from one individual to another. Some people don’t experience symptoms at all, while others complain of having burning or sharp pain in their stomach, bloating, heartburn, nausea or vomiting, and in severe cases dark stool due to bleeding, weight loss, and severe pain in the abdomen.


Overview of Obesity by Josie Vitale

Multiple factors cause obesity, starting with the inherited genes you were born with. If family members from past generations were obese, they may pass that gene down to you, making it easier for you to put on weight and become obese over some time. Genes are not the only thing causing obesity that your family has instilled in you. The way you grow up, the lifestyle of your family, and the eating habits of your family are most likely carried on by you when you are older. Therefore, if your surroundings growing up support weight gain and low exercise, there is a high chance that you will keep those tendencies through adulthood. The other factors of obesity are exercise and diet.


What Are the Early Signs of Prostate Cancer by Joshua Pfeffer

Early signs of prostate problems, including cancer, may involve problems urinating, blood in the urine, blood in the semen, or pelvic discomfort. It is advised that a doctor be consulted if any of these symptoms arise, especially in men over 50, or who may be at high risk of the disease. Diagnosis of prostate cancer is generally done via a digital examination of the rectum, meaning a physical exam by the doctor of the affected area. Other exams may include blood tests, ultrasounds, bone scans, MRIs, or CT scans as ordered by the physician, all of which may lend expertise towards diagnosing the disease, as well as how advanced the cancerous growth may be.


What is Iliotibial Band Syndrome by Jeff Schmidt

The symptoms of ITBS are significant, sharp, cutting pain on the side of the affected knee. The most notable symptom is pain when walking down steps. Typically, as with most overuse injuries, the pain increases with activity and can be debilitating. Each bend of the knee causes the band to slide from behind and to the front of the femur. The constant sliding over the bony part on the outside of the knee causes friction and inflammation.


What is Hodgkin’s Lymphoma by Amber Mills

Symptoms of Hodgkin’s can include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin, tiredness, flu-like symptoms such as fever or chills, major weight loss, and trouble breathing. Those who are most at risk of Hodgkin’s are people between the ages of 15 and 35, and also those over 55, those who have a family risk of this particular disease, those with weak immune systems, those who have had an illness that contributed to the Epstein-Barr virus, and also males have a higher rate of developing Hodgkin’s.


What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma By Chris Rost

Squamous cell carcinoma is a form of cancer that is usually seen in parts of the body exposed to the sun. It’s known to spread faster, and to other parts of the body than other forms of skin cancer. The cancer starts in a layer of the skin called the epidermis. The epidermis is the outermost layer of your skin. This layer protects you from germs and infections.  Squamous cell carcinoma starts when your skin absorbs radiation from sunlight, and over time, can damage cells. Those damaged cells begin to reproduce, divide, and eventually form a tumor in the epidermis.  If caught quickly the tumor can be removed surgically. If it continues to grow it will spread into deeper layers of the skin.


Unknown Lab Report in Microbiology (example paper)

When unknown microorganisms are present, it is necessary to identify them in a laboratory setting.  Microbes can be identified by their cellular structure and function.  Different organisms also behave differently in various environmental conditions.  Determination of pathogenicity is possible after correct identification.  The ability of bacteria to cause infection and disease requires identification to determine treatment options for the host.  Laboratory microbe identification can also be useful to determine if bacteria are part of the normal flora of animals and humans.


Causes and Effects of Spondylolisthesis by Caroline Marshak

Spondylolisthesis occurs when a vertebra slips out of place and moves closer to the bone below it. This typically happens in the adolescent years but can occur at birth or even later in life. Certain sports can cause this disorder, such as dancing, gymnastics, and football. These activities strain the back muscles and put stress on the bones in the lower back. Gymnastics and dance are known for their hyperextensions and movement, which is why this condition often targets people who participate in these sports.


What is Placental Abruption by Emily Cronin

Placental Abruption is a condition that can occur during pregnancy. This condition is where the placenta, which gives the baby oxygen and nourishment, detaches from the uterine wall. Thus causing the mother to have extreme bleeding and the baby to receive very little to no oxygen and nutrition. This condition is severe and if diagnosed it should be treated immediately. If you fail to get treatment you will harm not only yourself but also your baby. The worst-case scenario for this condition is death.


What is Melanoma

Melanoma is a tumor of melanin-forming cells. The malignant tumor is associated with skin cancer. Malignant melanoma can be very difficult to treat but treatment and an early diagnosis will increase the survival rate. Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. The cancerous growths develop when unrepaired DNA causes damage to skin cells triggering mutations. These mutations can lead to the skin cells multiplying rapidly which then forms malignant tumors. Melanoma is caused by intense UV exposure that leads to sunburn. Some people have a higher chance of getting this cancer if people in their family have a history of it. Melanoma kills about 8,790 people in the United States every year.


What is Pancreatic Cancer by Emilie Arl

Two types of tumors are involved in this type of cancer. There is an exocrine tumor, which is most common, and an endocrine tumor, which is less common.  The good news is that endocrine tumors are typically benign, meaning they are not cancerous.  However, an exocrine tumor is cancerous.  Treatment of this kind of tumor depends on the stage that the tumor is at.  The stage is determined by how much the cancer has spread.  The more spread out it is, the more serious the cancer is.  This ranges from stage I to stage IV.


What is Lyme Disease By Ashley Collings

Symptoms of Lyme disease usually will not occur until about three days to even a month after you have been bitten by the infected tick. Early symptoms of Lyme disease are similar to the flu and include a rash called erythema migrans. Erythema migrans can range in size from very small to very large and can also range in shape but its origin is that of where the tick bite was.  Fatigue can happen but it is less common. Although the early symptoms may seem like nothing except the flu, Lyme disease will come and go with the same feeling of illness.


What is Leukodystrophy by Jacob Reifschneider

Leukodystrophy is a rare inherited gene mutation disorder within the myelin sheath creation process.  It is passed down from parent to child.  The inherited genes may be recessive or dominant depending on the type of leukodystrophy the patient has been diagnosed with.  Leukodystrophy is mostly an inherited disorder, which as stated earlier is passed on from parent to child.  Though, most cases present in children under the age of five, other forms of the disorder may appear later in life.  The forms of the disorder occurring later in life are still caused by a mutation of a specific gene, but the mutation is not inherited.


Diabetes and its Effects by Hazheen Ibrahim Taily

A person can suffer serious health issues if their diabetes isn’t managed properly. They can suffer problems in the heart, kidneys, nerves, and eyes and suffer death as well in some cases. To avoid these things from happening, you must take control of your diabetes by exercising often, eating healthy foods, and taking the medicine that you’re prescribed. You also have to be sure to check your blood sugar regularly to make sure it’s within normal levels as well as your cholesterol and blood pressure. An increase in the level of these two things will lead to the danger of getting type 2 diabetes.


What is Glaucoma by Amanda Cobet

At first, people with glaucoma lose peripheral vision.  If the disease is not treated, vision loss will continue.  Over time this can then lead to total blindness. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness behind cataracts. There are many types of glaucoma but the main two are open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma.


What are Hepatocellular Adenomas By Samantha Jespersen

The body recycles its old cells and replaces them with new cells.  However, if a mutation occurs in the DNA of the cells, the cells will grow abnormally.  Abnormal cells are known as precancerous cells, though the cells almost never turn cancerous. When a bunch of cells with a genetic mutation are found, it is known as a mass.  A mass can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors do not spread to other regions of the body and are typically removed with surgery.   Malignant tumors eventually spread once they have reached stages I, II, or III. They spread throughout the body and often require a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. Adenomas are a type of benign tumor found on glandular organs.


What is Emphysema by Allison Torno

Emphysema is a common type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) that causes people to have difficulty breathing. Emphysema is a result of damage to the inner lining of the lungs that is irreversible. Over time, emphysema changes the air sacs located in the inner walls of the lungs into oversized pockets with vast holes. Due to the change in the size and quantity of the air sacs in the lungs, the surface area of the lungs is lessened, which in turn decreases the amount of oxygen that is able to get to your bloodstream. Emphysema also damages the small fibers that surround the airways leading to the air sacs, causing them to cave in, which prevents air from escaping the lungs.


All About Color Blindness by Jesus Morales

Color blindness is a sex-linked trait and it is passed from the mother to her kids. However, it is only manifested in males. Females carry the color blindness disease and they transmit it their kids. On the other hand, males are the ones that suffer this illness for the rest of their life, but they cannot transmit it to their kids because females are the only ones that can transfer the disorder.


Understanding and Coping with Dementia by Angela Richardson

Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability serve enough to interfere with daily life. As we age our memory isn’t as sharp, and we forget things, for example why we went into a room or where we put our keys to the car doesn’t mean that you have dementia, as long as you know what the keys are for and that you are aware that you went into the room and forgot what you were looking for. Dementia is rare before the age of 60. This disease is affecting the elderly, knowing someone that you love has this serious disease it’s very hard to watch them day by day, month by month and year by year. Many dementias start off slow and gradually get worst and some have aggressive dementia. Dementia gets worst as you age. Before the age of 65 is very rare to be diagnosed with this disease.


Chemotherapeutic Use of Curcumin in Colorectal Cancer by Thomas E. Noerper

Turmeric comes from the root of the Curcuma longa plant, a member of the ginger family that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Turmeric is the spice that gives bright yellow or orange color to many curry sauces, and it is the ingredient that makes ordinary hot dog mustard bright yellow. Turmeric has been used for many centuries by practitioners of traditional Indian, or Ayurvedic, medicine, who use it mainly for digestive ailments and skin conditions.4  In Western medical science, the most-studied component of turmeric is curcumin.


What is Celiac Disease by Tomasina Floresvega

Once you have been diagnosed with Celiac disease, you will want to go on a gluten-free diet. This really is the only treatment for CD, but it will be a life-long treatment. Making a change in one’s diet is difficult, but if it means making your way to a healthier, happier you, then wouldn’t you take the high road rather than the alternative? Many that change their diet usually see great results and feel ten times better than before. Instead of looking at it as a negative, there can be an advantage to it. Taking all that gluten out of your diet might help increase your chances of leading to the diseases and/or syndromes I mentioned earlier.


What is Attention Deficit Disorder by Vanessa Ferie

Between 1987 and 1994 a series of studies were conducted to see if it were possible to have AD/HD without hyperactivity, and it was concluded that a child could have a hard time focusing but show fewer signs of hyperactive personality. As a result of these findings, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revised the manual in 1994 to broaden the spectrum of AD/HD. Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is broken up into three sub-categories one being predominantly inattentive presentation which is described as a person who has a hard time finishing one thing, organizational skills are subpar, to say the least, and it might be hard to follow directions or even a conversation.



Let’s talk about what are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. In the majority of cases of those who have been infected by Alzheimer’s disease, memory loss is the number one symptom. Furthermore, memory loss can be divided into two categories: 1) lack of spatial abilities and, 2) lack of verbal abilities. What does that mean? Well, in the first case scenario, when a person who has been affected by Alzheimer’s lacks spatial abilities, it means that the performance of the same person is significantly impaired on tasks such as those that involve perception. On the other hand, language comprehension is a result of a loss of verbal abilities.


What is Narcolepsy by Clarence Janiszewski

There isn’t really a solid cure for Narcolepsy but there are certain medications you can take that can help. And there are ways you can do to cope with this disorder such as making changes in your everyday life, and make sure you are in a safe environment most people with Narcolepsy stay close to or at home to reduce the risk of endangering their life.



Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of the gastrointestinal tract (GI). In 1932 Crohn’s disease was explicated by Dr. Burill B. Crohn, whom the disease was also named after, and his two fellow colleagues Dr. Leon Ginzburg and Dr. Gordon D. Oppenheimer. Crohn’s is a chronic disease that affects men and women equally. It is caused by inflammation of the lining of a person’s digestive tract. Even though we know what it does to the body the cause of this disease is still not understood, nor is there a cure for this disease.


What is Asthma by Jenna Schneider

Asthma is a chronic disease with no cure, and if left untreated patients could possibly die. Asthma affects how a person’s lung functions properly. The two main causes of asthma are airway constriction and airway inflammation which both have a huge impact on the person dealing with the illness. Although there are several different symptoms, not everyone has asthma. There are several different types of medication prescribed to asthma patients. It is important to discuss with a doctor if the individual thinks they could have asthma.  If one goes to the doctor, it will allow someone to get the proper diagnosis and treatment they would need. Asthma can be considered a deadly disease if not properly managed right away.


Albinism By Huynh (Diem) Phan

 Albinism is a genetic defect that affects thousands of people each day. This defect affects all races. Unlike other deficiencies or diseases that are easily hidden, Albinism is physically apparent. It is caused by an altered gene that controls the body from producing melanin it which gives humans the pigment color. There are many types of Albinism like Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome or Ocular Albinism but the two main types of Albinism: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is caused by the lack of melanin within the body, while type 2 is caused by a defect in the “P” gene.  The “P” gene or oculocutaneous Albinism II (OCA2) is a gene that provides information and instructions for making a P protein. In Albinism, OCA2 becomes mutated making Albinos have white skin, light hair, and vision problems.


Example of an Unknown Lab Report in Microbiology

Enterobacter aerogenes is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It commonly resides in the human gastrointestinal tract and does not cause infections/diseases in healthy people but in those who have weakened immune systems. E. aerogenes is an intractable bacterium and is resistant to most antibiotics like cephalosporins, which is overused in hospitals due to it containing β- lactamase enzyme that can break the B-lactam ring in the antibiotics; so the antibiotics don’t work anymore.


Unknown Lab Report Example in Microbiology by Rhea Becnel

Knowing the identity of different microorganisms is important for various reasons. Different microbes can be bacteria, viruses, fungi, and helminths. It is important to know the differences and identity between these microbes to treat them in a patient.  It is also useful to know the identity of different microbes when trying to treat a patient because microbes can have cell walls that differentiate them.  Knowing this information can help determine the best antibiotic to use.  To identify the unknown bacteria in this study, testing methods were used that have been discussed and learned in the microbiology class and laboratory.


Staphylococcus epidermidis | Microbiology Lab Report

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a gram-positive spherical bacterium that form irregular clusters.  Staphylococci are commonly found on the skin and in the mucous membranes of humans and other mammals.  S. epidermidis is the species most commonly isolated from human epithelia according to the Microbiology textbook (3).  It is most frequently found on the head, in the nares and axillae.  S. epidermidis belongs to a group of coagulase-negative Staphylococci, which is distinguished by a lack of the enzyme coagulase.  It is a highly diverse species with 74 different species types.  The species is specially equipped to survive the harsh conditions of the skin and mucosae (4).  S. epidermidis is a microorganism that demonstrates commensalism with the human body.  This is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is unharmed (3).


Unknown Bacteria Lab Report | Microbiology Paper

This study is the determination of the UNKNOWN bacterium that was given by the Microbiology  LAB  Professor. The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to evaluate the student’s knowledge and capabilities in identifying microorganisms. Knowing what organism will give the student an idea of the genus and species that can cause diseases, how it can grow and reproduce including how this type of bacteria can be treated and killed, and what type of antibiotic it will be susceptible to.


Bacillus cereus and Food Poisoning | Microbiology Lab Report

There are many different species of bacteria that exist in the world, depending on their pathogenic characteristics.  From determining the cause of a disease to diagnosing a patient, to developing microorganisms for certain antibiotics, it is essential that pathogens are identified.  To this end, a variety of methods were utilized to correctly identify the unknown bacterium.


What is Rheumatoid Arthritis by Kathleen Province

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes painful inflammation of the joints. RA is one of the most serious and common forms of arthritis, affecting more than one million Americans annually. RA is a chronic disease, mainly characterized by inflammation of the lining of the joints which causes swelling that can result in joint deformity and bone erosion. This then leads to long-term joint damage, chronic pain, and loss of function for the sufferers of this disease. In addition, RA can also have an effect on some organs of the body such as the eyes, skin, blood vessels, and lungs.


What is Prostate Cancer by Andrea Fobert

Prostate cancer is the abnormal growth of cancer cells within the prostate, a gland in men that carries sperm and produces the majority of semen. Although it is rare in men under the age of fifty, it is a crucial health concern for men of all ages. One-third of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men under the age of sixty-five. This disease is more likely to be less aggressive in men the older they are, which contributes to why many men die of other causes without knowing they have it. There are a few known factors that aid to the development of prostate cancer such as an unhealthy diet, low exercise, and family history.