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Cardiac Arrest Hs & Ts Mnemonic Device

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Go Here for Hypoglycemia. CPR Nashville brings your Hs and Ts for recognizing cardiac arrest in an Advanced Cardiac Life Support ACLS class Nashville, TN.



a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as 35.0 °C (95.0 °F).


Cardiac Tamponade-


Pressure on the heart that occurs when blood or fluid builds up in the space between the heart muscle (myocardium) and the outer covering sac of the heart (pericardium). The rapid rise in pressure impairs diastolic filling of the heart.

Acute Myocardial Infarction, Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm, Lung Cancer, Pericarditis, Trauma, ETC.

Signs and Symptoms:


  • Jugular Vein Distension
  • Anxiety
  • Dyspnea, rapid breathing
  • Muffled Heart Sounds on Auscultation
  • Diaphoresis
  • Chest Pain
  • Pale, blue, or grey skin color
  • dizziness/lightheadedness
  • weak or absent pulse



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The fluid around the heart must be drained as quickly as possible. Pericardiocentesis is a procedure that uses a needle to remove fluid from the pericardial sac, the tissue that surrounds the heart.

A procedure to cut and remove part of the pericardium (surgical pericardiectomy or pericardial window) may also be done.

Fluids are given to maintain normal blood pressure until pericardiocentesis can be performed. Medications that increase blood pressure may also help sustain the patient’s life until the fluid is drained.

The patient may be given oxygen. This reduces the workload on the heart by decreasing tissue demands for blood flow.

The cause of tamponade must be identified and treated.


Tension Pneumothorax



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