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Hs and Ts Cardiac Arrest | CPR Classes Nashville | CPR Nashville

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Hs & Ts by CPR Nashville

***In an Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) class don’t forget as a team approach to search for and discuss possible contributing factors/reversible causes. These notes outline the definitions, causes, symptoms, and reversing treatments for the Hs and Ts for Cardiac Arrest. 


Hypovolemia – 


In hypovolemic shock there is reduced intravascular blood volume. This causes circulatory dysfunction and inadequate tissue perfusion.

If left untreated, hypovolemic shock can lead to cardiac arrest, irreversible brain and kidney damage, and ultimately death.


Acute blood loss, Dehydration, Diabetes Insipidus, Diuresis, Peritonitis, Severe Diarrhea/Vomiting

Signs and Symptoms:

  • cold, pale, and clammy skin
  • decreased sensorium
  • rapid, shallow respirations
  • hypotension
  • tachycardia
  • decreased urine output (less than 25ml per hour)


Blood and Fluid Replacement

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Control of Bleeding if indicated


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